Drug Classification & Information
Enalapril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Angiotensin is a hormone which causes hypertension, fluid and salt retention, and causes fibrosis of the heart muscle. It also stimulates production of another hormone caused aldosterone which can also lead to salt and water retention and fibrosis of the heart muscle.
Indications for Use
Enalapril is prescribed in patients with CHF. It may also be used in patients with some forms of heart disease prior to the onset of CHF to attempt to delay progression of disease. It is also used to treat systemic hypertension and treat proteinuria (protein loss into the urine).
Potential Drug Interactions
Enalapril should be used with caution with other medications that may lower the blood pressure as it may cause an additive drop in blood pressure (calcium channel blockers, beta blockers). Should be used with caution with medications that may affect kidney function such as NSAIDs. In combination with spironolactone may cause elevated levels of potassium. As it is primarily renally excreted, caution in animals with a history of kidney disease.
Drug Side Effects
Enalapril may cause lethargy, weakness and a reduction in appetite. In humans coughing is a common side effect but this is considered uncommon in veterinary species.
Trending blood pressure and renal values/electrolytes while receiving this medication is recommended. Generally, bloodwork is performed 1-2 weeks after initiation of therapy then every 6 months.
Veterinary: 1, 2.5, 5, 10 & 20 mg tablets (Enacard)
Human: 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg tablets